The Lexham Dead Sea Scrolls Hebrew-English Interlinear Bible in Logos 7

My frequent co-conspirator Ken Penner and I, with the assistance of Nick Meyer, have been working on something I pitched to Ken last summer: The Lexham Dead Sea Scrolls Hebrew-English Interlinear Bible. We chatted about it in November at SBL (at a very yummy churrascaria) and early this year began working on it.

There is more to do, but a version of the text (minus 1 & 2 Samuel, which are still being worked on) slipped in to various Logos 7 packages. Here’s what it looks like:

LDSSHEIB-Deut-32-8

Lexham Dead Sea Scrolls Hebrew-English Interlinear Bible, Deut. 32:8–10

In the above, the light grey text is the text of the Lexham Hebrew Bible (LHB). Interlinear units that contain material from the Dead Sea Scrolls (DSS) is in black, though brackets do note the inclusion/exclusion of LHB text. Two layers of interlinear glosses are included, and the source of each reading selected is noted. When a source has orthographic (spelling) variations in other DSS sources or is at orthographic variance with the LHB, an asterisk notes more information on these differences including a link to the transcriptions in question.

What is the basis of the top line text / selection of readings? Ken Penner addresses that in the introduction:

Where more than one manuscript preserves part of a biblical text, the reading selected is the oldest complete word preserved in the Scrolls. The scroll dates used for this purpose are those collected by Webster’s Chronological Index of the Texts.

Our procedure for handling cases where no manuscript has completely preserved a word is to consider the letters individually.

Further, it uses the lemma and morphology scheme used by the Lexham Hebrew Bible, so one can search both resources contemporaneously for lexical or morphological criteria, or even use the “Corresponding Words” and “Corresponding Selection” features of Logos Bible Software to compare the texts side-by-side.

We’re excited about this resource and its future, and glad we could get a version of it into Logos 7.

Logos 7 is Here!

L7-splash-001Depending on your perspective, it may or may not be a surprise that Logos 7 was released this morning. We’ve been on a six-week release cycle in support of Logos Now for over 18 months. That’s a new release, every six weeks, for 18 months. So we were going to have an update today (August 22, 2016) anyway.

But the release of Logos 7 is big because it means the stuff that Logos Now members have had access to over the last 18 months (with new stuff every six weeks) is now available for purchase and upgrade. And my team has been busy (BUSY!) over those 18 months. I have two lists below representing what we’ve done. The first is stuff my team worked on for the actual Logos 7 release (meaning, it was released this morning), followed by the stuff my team has worked on over the past 18 months that everyone who upgrades to Logos 7 can now access.

I may have posts in the future about some of the new things.

New Stuff for Logos 7 Release

Resources

  1. Lexham Dead Sea Scrolls Hebrew-English Interlinear Bible
  2. Lexham Latin-English Interlinear Vulgate Bible
  3. The Reverse Interlinear Vulgate
  4. The English-Greek Reverse Interlinear Deuterocanonical Old Testament Revised Standard Version, Catholic Edition

Datasets

  1. Hebrew Grammatical Constructions — difficult to search for Hebrew constructions annotated so they can be more easily discovered. Verbless clauses, tripartite nominal clauses, and several different flavors of hollow verbs.
  2. Speech Acts (New Testament) — Speech Acts and Sentence Types (#3 below) are separate analyses but when combined offer unique capability. Speech Acts is more functional. For example, sometimes a functional request is formally a declarative sentence. Mt 8.5–7 records the centurion asking Jesus to help heal his slave. But the centurion only tells Jesus his slave is paralyzed and tormented; he doesn’t really ask for him to be healed. Sort of like how my kids say “I’m thirsty!” but what they really mean is “May I have something to drink?” Speech Acts annotates this more functional use of language.
  3. Sentence Types (New Testament) — Sentence types annotates the formal nature of a sentence/clause. Is it declarative, interrogative (question), or imperative (command)? This dataset provides an easy way to search for items that are formally questions or commands in the New Testament — a frequent request from users.
  4. Longacre Genre Analysis — Robert Longacre defined four major types of genre that are applied to larger blocks of text (pericopes). Each type has two nuances or sides. This analysis annotates the Hebrew Bible and Greek New Testament with Longacre’s categories.
  5. Figurative Language (Gospels) — This analysis is of figurative language in the Gospels. We plan to expand it to cover the whole New Testament. So in Mt 5.19 where Jesus notes there will be some called “least in the Kingdom of Heaven” and some called “greatest”, this is metaphorical language. In this case, an orientational metaphor. Where is other language like this used? Mt 10.24, “A disciple is not superior to his teacher, nor a slave superior to his master.” You would’ve never found that other example before, now it can be easily found by searching on the category of figurative language. Or maybe you’re interested in the use of “Shepherd” in figurative language. A search finds several examples in the gospels (Mt 26.31; Mk 14.27; Jn 10.2, 11ff.).

Other Logos Now Material Now Available

These items have been available for Logos Now members, and can now be accessed by Logos 7 owners.

Datasets

  1. Discourse Datasets and Visual Filters 
  2. New Feature: Cascadia Syntax Graphs of LXX Deuterocanon and Apocrypha 
  3. Miracles of the Bible 
  4. Syntactic Force 
  5. Speaking to God 
  6. Proverbs Explorer, vol. 2 
  7. Biblical Theologies Section
  8. Israelite Sacrifices
  9. Reported Speech, Speakers, and Addressees for Deuterocanon
  10. New Testament Use of the Old
  11. Confessional Documents Section
  12. Proverbs Explorer Dataset
  13. Bullinger’s Figures of Speech Dataset
  14. Addressees in Reported Speech 
  15. Greek Grammatical Constructions 
  16. Old Testament Propositional Bible Outlines 
  17. Psalms Explorer Dataset 
  18. RSVCE Hebrew Old Testament Reverse Interlinear 
  19. Systematic Theologies Section

Interactives

  1. Miracles of the Bible 
  2. Speaking to God 
  3. Systematic Theologies Interactive 
  4. Hebrew Bible Manuscript Explorer
  5. Names of God: Deuterocanon 
  6. Proverbs Explorer, vol. 2
  7. New Testament Use of the Old Testament 
  8. Synopsis of Samuel, Kings, and Chronicles
  9. Before and After Vol 2 
  10. Commandments of the Law
  11. Names of God Interactive 
  12. Narrative Character Maps Vol 2 
  13. New Testament Manuscript Explorer 
  14. Septuagint Manuscript Explorer

Resources

  1. Parallel Passages in the Pauline Epistles 

Brannan’s Building a Firm Foundation is Coming

Appian Way Press

We’ve been spending some time wrapping up Rick Brannan’s forthcoming study, Building a Firm Foundation: A 12-Week Study on the Apostles’ Creed. Our plan is to make it available soon, both in print and for Kindle.

FirmFoundationCover-001 “I am very grateful for this treatment by Rick Brannan. He is faithful to the concise and memorable content of the Apostles’ Creed while expositing its meaning. He addresses the depth of the creed through an easily-digestible question-and-answer format. He gives us further riches in showing the interaction of the Heidelberg Catechism, itself a treasure of historical teaching of the faith, with the Apostles’ Creed.

“May you enjoy again the Apostles’ Creed, in its history and depth. May you treasure forever the truths it contains, of a Savior who was crucified, dead and buried, yet rose again from the dead, and provides forgiveness of sins and resurrection to all who put their…

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New Title: Building a Firm Foundation: A 12-Week Study on the Apostles’ Creed

Appian Way Press

AppianWay-BFF-Title-001Just this morning, we started working on getting Rick Brannan’s Building a Firm Foundation: A 12-Week Study on the Apostles’ Creed ready to publish. Brannan’s work is a look at the topics of the Apostles’ Creed through the lens of the Heidelberg Catechism.

The Heidelberg Catechism is designed to provide a teaching schedule for the year. It is broken into 52 “Lord’s Days”, indicating the subject matter to be taught each week.

Because the Heidelberg Catechism is designed to teach, it utilizes three main components: The Apostles’ Creed, the Ten Commandments, and The Lord’s Prayer. The bulk of the catechism is concerned with the exposition of these three components. This 12-week study is essentially a study on the Apostles’ Creed that uses the Heidelberg Catechism as a foundation for examining the Apostles’ Creed in detail.

Each week’s study, then, will look to the biblical text to examine the teaching in the Heidelberg…

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We’ve forgotten how to mourn

I still don’t know how to respond to the tragedy of Orlando. But I still don’t know how to respond to other tragic events like Sandy Hook, or the events like those concerning Gabby Giffords, or anything like that.

I still don’t know how to consider the responses to these events. It’s all so predictable; with two potential responses broadcast, each implicitly and explicitly associated with major political parties.

Why does the self-interest of politics need to be the lens forced upon us to understand these events?

Why can’t we mourn? Why can’t we weep? Why can’t we suffer with those who have lost?

Tragedies happen. That’s why we have a word for it.

There is sin. There is evil. And there are things that cannot be explained.

I fear that with our collective societal wisdom, we believe we can fix it. We think, if we just find the reason (or the gene, or whatever), we can fix it.

But we can’t. Tragedies happen.

What we can do is mourn. And I fear we’ve lost that ability, as a society. We move from tragedy straight to blame. We forget to stand with those who lost. In our rush to find root causes, in our rush to predetermine blame, we forget to simply be with the mothers, fathers, brothers, sisters, lovers, and friends who have gaping holes in their lives as a result of a tragedy.

I haven’t done any exhaustive study; I haven’t even been able to do any reading or research on what I’m about to say. So this, I guess, is truly a response.

The thing that’s been in my thoughts these past few post-Orlando days is that Jesus was simply with people.

If you were a tax collector, he invited himself over for dinner. If you were a leper, he sat next to you and even touched you. If you were dead, he was in the same room with you (and sometimes brought you back). If you were marginalized, he said “Follow me.” If you were in the 1%, he said “Follow me.” He had things he wanted to teach you, certainly. But he didn’t have a litmus test for being in the same room with him.

When we read about Jesus chewing out the scribes and pharisees, those events require them to be physically proximate. Jesus wasn’t blogging about them. He wasn’t doing it from his Facebook page or his Twitter account. Those folks were around him. He knew them. They knew him. It wasn’t an anonymous social media hit job. He wasn’t building a platform. He wasn’t checking his analytics to see how his message was being received and tweaking it to maximize ratings (and advertising sales).

When Jesus heard of a tragedy, he listened. The father of a little girl tells Jesus that his daughter is sick and maybe even dead. Jesus listens. He doesn’t take it as an opportunity to comment on rural health care or vaccinations or Obamacare or whatever the equivalent. He listens, he speaks, and he goes. Jesus is with him.

When a military guy with a sick servant, mourning the sickness and probable loss of his servant and friend, comes for help, Jesus listens. Jesus doesn’t tell him how Rome needs a Department of Peace instead of a military, or rail about the injustices of slavery. Jesus listens. Jesus is with him.

When Jesus sees a tax collector trying to hear and see more of what’s going on, Jesus acknowledges him. He doesn’t advocate for a flat tax, or rage about the IRS. He says “I’m coming for dinner, let’s hang out. Bring your friends.” He is with the tax collector.

When sick people were around, Jesus didn’t turn the other way. He didn’t think, “Well, I’ve got this gig in Galilee next week and don’t want to be sick” and then take the long way around them. He was with them. He spent time with them. He touched them. Sometimes Jesus even healed them.

We don’t do this. Our first societal response to a tragedy is to figure out what associated political cause we can push to the advantage of whatever political view we align with under the guise of trying to fix the situation and prevent it from happening again.

For Orlando, that seems to be a stance on gun rights. Or some stance on immigration of Muslims. Or some sort of referendum on LGBTQ rights.

Dear friends, we need to mourn. We need to weep.

Dear friends, we need to value “life,” however you define it, throughout its entire cycle.

Dear friends, we need to simply be with those affected by tragedy. Hear their stories. Weep with them. Mourn their loss.

Help Us Fund Our Adoption

adopt (the dictionary project)The Brannans are adopting. Again. And we’re asking for your help.

If you’ve been around us for awhile, you know that we have a heart for adoption. Our nearly four-year-old son Lucas is adopted. But adoption is an expensive thing. Like, really expensive. So we need some help.

Now, since you’ve been around us you also know that I’ve recently published three books through Appian Way Press. If you didn’t know, “Appian Way Press” is me (Rick Brannan), and these books are self-published. That means we’re in control of the copyright and the proceeds.

Now here’s the important part: All proceeds from all sales of Appian Way Press books are being set aside to assist with our adoption. If you’re interested, there are two ways you can help.

  • First Method: Buy the books in print from Amazon.com (1 Timothy, 2 Timothy, Apostles’ Creed). You’ll get great books on 1 & 2 Timothy or the Apostles’ Creed, and you’ll contribute around $7 per 1 Timothy book, $4 per 2 Timothy book, or $4 per Apostles’ Creed book to our adoption fund.
  • Second Method: If you’d just like to help us with our adoption but don’t really want to buy any books, you can donate with a credit card through Paypal. Pick your amount. We’re grateful for any donation amount, and it will all go straight into our adoption fund. 100% of it.

Please tell your family, friends, and everyone about this, especially if you think they may have interest in these books or interest in helping fund a domestic infant adoption.

Lastly — and most importantly — please pray for the little one we hope to have join our family, and their birth family.

Lexical Commentary Excerpt: 1 Tim 1:5

BookCoverImage-LCPE-1TimHere’s an excerpt from my recently published Lexical Commentary on the Pastoral Epistles: First Timothy. The commentary below is on 1 Timothy 1:5, which is pretty much the thesis of the letter.

Verse 5

but the goal of our instruction

The word translated “goal” is τέλος. The basic meaning is that of ‘end, finish, or termination;’[1] though τέλος developed many supplemental and context-sensitive meanings over time. In this context, the meaning of ‘aim’ or ‘goal’ is appropriate as the context indicates that it is the end of the effort, thus the purpose or reason for expending the effort. The word translated “instruction” is παραγγελία, which is less common in the New Testament. The basic sense of the word is that of a message that essentially commands or orders someone (or a group) to do something.[2] This is commonly known as a charge. Consider First Clement:

Therefore, having received commands and being fully convinced by the resurrection of our Lord Jesus Christ, and full of faith in the word of God, they went forth with the full assurance of the Holy Spirit, proclaiming the gospel, that the kingdom of God was about to come. (1Cl 42.3, emphasis added)

Here the charge or παραγγελία is received by the apostles and dutifully acted upon.

Paul does not establish a new charge for Timothy, but rather confirms that the charge is a common one.[3] Paul includes Timothy in the fulfillment of the charge that has been laid on him by none other than Christ Jesus. Paul sets Timothy’s goal in service to the Ephesian fellowship: to oppose the false teachers, myths, and endless genealogies of verses 3–4.

is love from a pure heart

The phrase “a pure heart” is relatively straightforward in its meaning. The word for “pure” (καθαρός) generally means ‘clean’ though it does have some ceremonial, ritual and religious undertones in its primary senses.[4] This leads to the preference of the translation “pure” instead of simply “clean” in this instance. This is the same language used in Ps 51:10 (lxx 50:12) when David pleads to God for mercy:

Create in me a clean heart, O God, and renew a right spirit in my inward parts. (Ps 51:10 [lxx 50:12], emphasis added)

The word for “heart” (καρδία) eventually becomes shorthand for all that “heart” actually means when it occurs in this sort of context. That is, καρδία refers to the figurative usage and assumes that the heart is the center or seat of ‘physical, spiritual and mental life.’[5] Its literal meaning is minimized and the figurative meaning becomes primary. Paul indicates that one’s innermost motivation must not be for impure motives, but rather for pure motives. Love is a result of these pure motives.

and a good conscience

Paul next mentions “a good conscience.” The word translated “good” (ἀγαθός) is a common word expressing the concept of good or goodness.[6] The word for “conscience” (συνείδησις) has to do with being aware of information concerning something. The primary sense, however, seems to be a bit more refined and carries the connotation of moral consciousness or conscience. These imply the idea of not only knowledge but the ability to discern right from wrong.[7]

Paul used this phrase in his testimony before the Sanhedrin, as is recorded in the book of Acts:

And looking intently at the Sanhedrin, Paul said, “Men and brothers, I have lived my life in all good conscience before God to this day.” So the high priest Ananias ordered those standing near him to strike his mouth. (Ac 23:1–2, emphasis added)

Paul is not weighed down by guilt from things he has done in the past, he instead considers his conscience clear. A similar usage is found in First Clement:

Each of us, brothers, in his own group, must be pleasing to God, being in good conscience, not going beyond the appointed rule of his ministry, with dignity. (1Cl 41.1, emphasis added)

In First Clement, the “good conscience” helps keep one’s mind on the task at hand. It allows one to focus on pursuing what is proper, and to dismiss what is not.

Paul desires for the Ephesian believers to have an innate ability to discern proper teaching from improper. At the time of the writing of this epistle, the Ephesians did not have this ability. They were falling prey to heretical teachers and false prophets. A “good conscience” contributes to the ability to discern proper teaching from improper teaching, hence Paul’s desire to instill “a good conscience” in them.

and a faith without hypocrisy

Finally, Paul mentions “a sincere faith.” Faith, in this context, carries the sense of trust. The word translated as “sincere” (ἀνυπόκριτος) means ‘genuine’ or ‘sincere’ or even ‘without play-acting’ when taken literally.[8]

The word ἀνυπόκριτος could also be translated as “unfeigned.” This implies the idea of genuine, but also conveys the idea in the Greek that rather than simply being genuine, this faith is something more. It is not faked and is not false. The faith unfeigned is real, sincere faith.

Consider also the use of ἀνυπόκριτος in the Wisdom of Solomon:

… bringing your sincere command as sharp sword; and it stood and filled all things with death, and it touched the sky but stood on the earth. (Wis 18:16, emphasis added)[9]

These three components of Paul’s goal are connected with conjunctions that indicate these three things—a pure heart, a good conscience, and faith unfeigned—all work together to display the love Paul desires the Ephesians to exhibit.

 

[1] bdag, p. 998. Occurs 40x in nt, only here in pe.

[2] bdag, p. 760. Occurs 5x in nt, 2x in pe: 1Ti 1:5, 18. The verb form of this word occurs in 1Ti 1:3. Cf. comments on both 1Ti 1:3 and 1Ti 1:18.

[3] Note that the charge is actually being explained and clarified from 1Ti 1:5 all the way through 1Ti 1:18. The basics of the charge, however, are in 1Ti 1:3–7.

[4] bdag, p. 489. Occurs 27x in nt, 7x in pe.

[5] bdag, p. 508. Occurs 156x in nt, 2x in pe: 1Ti 1:5, 2Ti 2:22.

[6] bdag, p. 3. Occurs 102x in nt, 10x in pe.

[7] bdag, p. 967. Occurs 30x in nt, 6x in pe: 1Ti 1:5, 19; 3:9; 4:2; 2Ti 1:3; Tt 1:15.

[8] bdag, p. 91. Occurs 6x in nt, 2x in pe: 1Ti 1:5; 2Ti 1:5.

[9] nrsv translates “authentic.”