Logos 9: Manuscripts of the Bible

[Note: all screen captures taken using Verbum, the version of Logos Bible Software customized for Catholic users; features and data discussed are the same between Logos and Verbum.]

We’ve long wanted to make manuscript data more accessible in Logos Bible Software. With Logos 6, we introduced the New Testament Manuscript Explorer, which provides manuscript-level information (date, location, contents, etc.) based on the incredible NTVMR from the INTF. Throughout the Logos 6 lifecycle (if I recall correctly) we also released the Septuagint Manuscript Explorer and the Hebrew Bible Manuscript Explorer.

While that information is useful, as an interactive resource it is not able to be easily accessed or linked to other resources. And since we wanted to pull manuscript information into Factbook, we needed something different.

Manuscripts of the New Testament, in English, Portuguese, and Chinese (Traditional)

We also wanted to provide page-level links to manuscript images indexed to Bible reference.

That sentence doesn’t make much sense. Let me try again. We wanted to be able to search for a reference (e.g. Mark 1:41) and list images one could browse at the NTVMR with links straight to the images. We wanted to provide something like the below, showing the 278 manuscript pages indexed to Mark 1:41 with links directly to the page at the NTVMR.

Search for manuscript pages indexed to Mark 1:41

We’ve created similar resources for the Septuagint (LXX) and the Hebrew Bible, but unfortunately there isn’t nearly the available page-level data for these corpora (Hats off to the NTVMR folks!). So we’ve made page-level references where data was available (LXX Sinaiticus and Vaticanus) and incorporated manuscript-level references to other manuscripts where data is available.

All three resources, in English

Hebrew Bible stuff is different from Greek NT or LXX because we (Logos) have transcriptions of all of the biblical scrolls, and many of the scroll fragments have images published on the web. So for the Hebrew Bible we have links to the transcriptions in Logos and available images at official sites.

But the big gain here is this information is now accessible in Factbook. We all know we can look up what “1Q1 Gen” is if we have the right resource open, or if we do a search across the library. But now, because it is all accessible from Factbook, you don’t have to remember which book or series to open to look. Just open Factbook and type in “1q1 gen”, and see what happens.

P52 entry in Factbook, and looking up “1q1 gen”

Now when you run across a reference to an NT, LXX, or Hebrew Bible manuscript, you just need to open the Factbook and look. You can read the article in Factbook’s Key Article section, or click the link to read it in the relevant manuscripts resource. We’re hoping this incorporation of manuscript information in Factbook makes it easier to follow up on questions about manuscripts you may encounter after reading technical commentaries or consulting textual apparatuses.

We have some ideas about how to integrate these manuscript resources even further with existing apparatuses (particularly of the GNT and LXX). No promises, but hopefully we’ll be able to make manuscript data even more accessible from the apparatuses themselves. Cross your fingers.

Logos 9: Lexham Research Lexicons

[Note: all screen captures taken using Verbum, the version of Logos Bible Software customized for Catholic users; features and data discussed are the same between Logos and Verbum.]

One of the best-kept secrets (in a bad way) of tools in Logos Bible Software is the Bible Sense Lexicon (BSL). It is unfortunate because the BSL is this great tool that provides a cross-linguistic sense analysis of every instance of every noun, verb, adjective, and adverb in the Hebrew Bible and the Greek New Testament. But outside of in-passage mention (where it is available in a context window or by link) it is pretty hard to find, especially if you’re starting with a lemma.

We did some evaluation and figured out that we could use the BSL information to aggregate sense data by lemma and provide the skeleton of a lexicon. Even better: The BSL has been localized into all of the core language editions of Logos Bible Software, so if we could figure out what to do with the English, we’d get six more languages for basically free. Here’s an example of the Lexham Research Lexicon of the Greek New Testament, in English, Spanish, and Korean.

Lexham Research Lexicon of the Greek New Testament (English, Spanish, and Korean)

Focusing on the English, there are a few things to note. The material drawn from the BSL is “peaceful (whole) — characterized by …” Before that material, we have part of speech and generalized gloss as well as, where applicable, equivalent Hebrew lemmas based on an analysis of available reverse interlinear data. Sometimes there will also be a link to the Lexham Theological Wordbook.

The references listed (in this case) are all the available instances of this sense+lemma combination. We also list a snippet of context in the original language (Greek here) in an interlinear view (only English and Spanish; other languages do not have the data available to support the interlinear view). Don’t worry, the interlinear is customizeable and you can turn off the gloss line if you’d like (using the aleph/omega button in the toolbar). The context given in the snippet is based on propositional data from the Lexham Discourse Greek New Testament. We select appropriate example references to list based on an analysis of Important Words data.

After this, for the New Testament, there are references of the same word from the Septuagint (Greek Old Testament). These reference listings (and the alternate corpus listings underneath it) are based on an analysis of existing Greek lexica and the manner in which they cite non-New Testament material.

After this we have the Commentary Articles section, which has listings of commentaries where the lemma is discussed. These listings are based on an analysis of all available commentaries with Greek or Hebrew words (or transliterations; presently over 8,300 commentaries are analyzed). We’re basically leveraging existing data here. Logos has had a Lemma in Passage feature that analyzes commentaries and tags lemmas where discernable. This is combined with information from another feature (Important Words) to determine which words are more significant in a passage. We then put the dots together to locate discussions in commentaries where the current lemma is important, and list the best scoring items.

We also have implemented a Journal Articles section that does similar things, only for Journals. This is based on a similar (in-development) analysis of over 3,700 journals for original language discussions. Not quite sure where the journal data is going yet, but this seemed to be an appropriate use of the data to surface Journal articles relevant to the lexicon article lemma.

The Lexham Research Lexicon of the Hebrew Bible is similarly organized. It also uses an interlinear view of example references (though only for the English), with contextual selections based on an analysis of the cantillation marks of the Hebrew Bible. Entries for verb are broken up further by verb stem. In the screen capture below, note the term reflecting the lemma of the entry is black and the other words are a lighter shade of grey, making it easier to determine the word related to the article even if the gloss line is not present.

Lexham Research Lexicon of the Hebrew Bible (English, Spanish, and Korean)

Note we have also created the Lexham Research Lexicon of the Aramaic Portions of the Hebrew Bible. The structure is the same as that of the Hebrew Bible volume.

The Bible Sense Lexicon (BSL) analysis is only of the Greek New Testament and the Hebrew Bible. We have not, as yet, analyzed the Septuagint (and we do not presently have plans to do so). But we do have a fair amount of lexical data for the Septuagint, so we also created a (slightly different) Lexham Research Lexicon of the Septuagint. We presently have only created a lexicon for English users as we have not yet curated and localized some key Septuagint data in other languages.

Lexham Research Lexicon of the Septuagint

For words that also occur in the Greek New Testament, the article in the Lexham Research Lexicon of the Septuagint shows much of the same data, only without the senses from the BSL. The Commentary Articles are drawn from commentaries on Old Testament books but which mention Greek in their discussions. There are no Journal Articles sections in the Septuagint volume.

We’re really excited about the Lexham Research Lexicons and their availability (for GNT, Hebrew Bible, and Aramaic) not only in English but also in Spanish, Korean, Portuguese, Chinese (Simplified) and Chinese (Traditional). The early feedback from beta testers has been encouraging. We hope you find these tools useful in your study of the Bible.

Logos 9 is here!

[Note: all screen captures taken using Verbum, the version of Logos Bible Software customized for Catholic users; features and data discussed are the same between Logos and Verbum.]

It’s true, Logos 9 is here! It’s been around two years since Logos 8 released, so it must be time for Logos 9. As with Logos 8, this release is multi-OS (Windows, Mac, iOS, Android), multi-platform (desktop, phone, tablet, web), and multilinguial (English, Spanish, German, Korean, Portuguese, Chinese (Traditional), and Chinese (Simplified), with French on the way sometime next year). Lots and lots and lots of work.

For Logos 9, the team I’m part of worked on the improved Factbook. One of my responsibilities was to create resources that would allow the Factbook to access lexical information and manuscript information. So I examined all the data presently available in these areas and came up with some new stuff that will make its debut in Logos 9 (some shown below).

Lexicons and Manuscripts and Images, oh my!

Later this morning I’ll post about the four new Lexham Research Lexicons. After that I’ll post again about the three resources that make up the Manuscripts of the Bible series. So stay tuned!

Supplementary Easter Reading: The Acts of Pilate

GreekReadersIf you’ve celebrated Easter as a Christian, you’re familiar with the story as it is presented in the canonical gospels.

But you also probably have questions. What was the trial really like? Who were the other two dudes crucified next to Jesus? What was with Joseph of Arimathea and why did he want Jesus’ body? What was Hades like? How did the “harrowing of hell” happen? Was the repentant criminal on the cross actually saved?

Early Christians had these questions too. So they wrote about them. This is not canonical, this is not authoritative, but if you want to see some of the ways the early church filled these gaps, then you want to read the Acts of Pilate and the Descent of Christ to Hades.

Fortunately, I created a Greek reader for the Greek text of these writings a few years back. I also included a modernized version of an older translation.

If you’re not familiar with these stories, then take some time this Easter to read them. For those who don’t read Greek, I’m posting translations here today.

I recommend reading the first portion of the Acts of Pilate on Good Friday as it is focused on the trial and crucifixion of Jesus.

I recommend reading the second portion of the Acts of Pilate, known also as the Descent of Christ to Hades, on Saturday as it focuses on what happens between the death and resurrection of Jesus and also the post-resurrection period.

 

P.Berol. 11633: Epiphany and Theophany

This is one of a short series of posts about Epiphany themes in early Christian papyri.

This one is long, so we’re just going to jump right in.


P.Berol. 11633

Description

P. 11633: Theophanie-Hymne

Hymne über die Taufe Christi im Jordan durch Johannes, die innerhalb des liturgischen Jahres zum Theophaneia-Fest (Epiphanias) am 6. Januar gehört. 5. – 6. Jh. n.Chr.

P.Berol. 11633 (TM 64689), dated to ad 400–599, is called a “Theophany Hymn” by the editor of its editio princeps.[1] The papyrus focuses on events traditionally associated with the epiphany of Jesus.[2] It is a single sheet, 12cm wide and over 32cm long, with writing only on the recto. Nomina sacra and other abbreviations are used in the papyrus. Three primary sections are marked in the text by use of ekthesis at the start of a section. In some cases colons and tildes (lines 28 and 44) are used to fill remaining line space at the end of a section. Slashes (“/”) are used throughout to mark units.

Contents

Epiphany is a feast of the church (January 6) that was originally associated with the baptism of Jesus. While the feast originated in the eastern church and also included themes of the nativity, the western church began celebrating it in association with the miracle at the wedding in Cana.[3] The word “epiphany” has ties to the Greek word that means “to reveal,” so epiphany is about the revelation of Christ to the world. This revealing could be understood as his nativity, or as his baptism by John marking the beginning of his ministry, or as the miracle at the wedding in Cana indicating his first recorded miracle.

This liturgical papyrus mentions all these events as well as others from the life of Jesus as recorded in the gospels. At least one line from the first part is missing, but the available text begins with rejoicing “in the holy pool,” a reference to a baptismal font.[4] References to the glory and power of the Lord function as allusions to Luke 1:35 and 2:9 to end the first part.

The second part begins by echoing the Psalms (100:1 [lxx 99:1]; 66:1 [lxx 65:1]; 98:4 [lxx 97:4]) with a call to the whole earth to shout aloud to the Lord. This call to worship is followed by a call to rejoice (perhaps echoing Ps 96:4b [lxx 97:4b]) and a call to “meet the bridegroom” in Bethlehem (referencing Jesus’ birth) who also performed the miracle at Cana changing water into wine (Jn 2:1–11), who also healed the blind man at Siloam (Jn 9:1–12), who cleansed the leper by simply speaking (possibly Mt 8:1–4 || Mk 1:40–45; Lk 5:12–16), and who used five loaves to feed five thousand (Mt 14:13–31 || Mk 6:32–34; Lk 9:10–17; Jn 6:1–15). The balance of the second part sets the scene of Jesus’ baptism in the Jordan. Jesus’ title of “the lamb of God who takes away the sin of the world” (Jn 1:29) is echoed, John the Baptist is referred to as “the forerunner,” and the response of God the Father to Jesus’ baptism, “This is my beloved son, in whom I am well-pleased” (Mt 3:17) ends the section.

Part three returns to the baptism of Jesus, providing what amounts to an intimate overhearing of what seems framed as a whispered conversation between Jesus and John immediately before the baptism. After the baptism, the mountains and hills rejoice, and the words of the Father are extended with an additional command: “This is my beloved son, in whom I am well-pleased. Fear him.”

Translation[5]

Part I

(1) And he rejoiced upon the (2) holy pool
For in the midst of the (3) earth and heaven (4) confessing the Christ
and (5) treating the enemies arrogantly …
For the glory (6) of the Lord encircled him
(7) and his power will overshadow you.

Part II

(8) Shout aloud to the Lord all the earth
(9) because he appeared upon the earth, who was God before the (10) ages, the Word.
(11) Come, let us rejoice exceedingly and let (12) us celebrate!
Come, let us (13) meet the bridegroom, the one in (14) Bethlehem,
the one who with the Father (15) and the Holy Spirit
who was invited (16) to the wedding as a man and the (17) water was changed into wine;
who (18) gave sight to the blind one in Siloam;
(19) who cleansed the leper by his word.
(20) From five loaves (21) into five thousands were satisfied
(22) He went into the water of the Jordan,
(23) the lamb of God who takes away the (24) sin of the world,
to be baptized (25) by the forerunner.
(26) And the voice from the Father saying,
(27) “This one is my beloved (28) Son in whom I am well pleased.”~

Part III

(29) We were filled with great joy (30) upon seeing the Jordan
(31) when the one born upon earth as a man (32–34) appeared in it
and the forerunner himself listened to your voice saying,
“Let us (35) complete the plans of the Father.”
(36) “Like the Lord wanted,” (37) said John
You, Christ, came down (38) into the water,
The mountains leaped (39) like rams
and the hills like a lamb (40) of the sheep.
As you arose (41) from the Jordan
a voice has (42) come from the sky to you
(43) “This one is my beloved (44) Son in whom I am well pleased.
(45) Fear him.”~

Discussion

Visual indicators (ekthesis and sometimes extended tildes) mark the start or end of three sections on this 32-centimeter-long papyrus. The first part (lines 1–7) is missing at least a portion from its beginning, but the available material alludes to passages in the Psalms and in Luke.

The first available line mentions “rejoicing” using the same terminology found in Luke 1:47 and Ps. 35:9 [lxx 34:9] that speaks of rejoicing in the Lord. Here, however, the focus is on rejoicing for the baptismal font (“holy pool”) due to the epiphany emphasis on the baptism of Christ. The next lines (2–4) testify that Christ is being confessed from the midst of earth and heaven; this is followed by further allusion to Lucan nativity passages (lines 5–6 to Luke 2:9; line 7 to Luke 1:35).

The second part (lines 8–28) begins with phrasing common to the Psalms: “Shout aloud to the Lord all the earth!” (cf. Ps 100:1 [lxx 99:1]; 66:1 [lxx 65:1]; 98:4 [lxx 97:4]), providing the reason for shouting (perhaps in praise): “because he (Jesus) appeared upon the earth.” The next line provides information to reconcile the “he” with Jesus. It describes him as the one “who was God before the ages” and then further appositionally associates him with the term used to represent Jesus in John 1:1, the word. Again, there is rejoicing and celebration at this arrival. The nativity is directly referenced with mention of “Bethlehem” (13–14), even though the one in Bethlehem is equated with “the bridegroom.”

The frame of reference moves from the nativity (the earthly arrival and manifestation of the Messiah) to the wedding in Cana (the first recorded miracle of Christ in the gospels, a public manifestation of the Messiah). The entire Trinity is posited to be where “the water was changed into wine” (14–17). From here more miracles from the early ministry of Jesus are mentioned. Regarding Epiphany and early miracles of Jesus, Martinez notes:

Miracle narratives, especially those that Jesus performed early in his career, are always appropriate in an epiphanal context, since they, like his birth and baptism, manifest his true nature. We should however note, that the roster of miracles in this section is not randomly selected. In fact, three that are here listed have distinct ties to the celebration of Epiphany in various traditions.[6]

The miracles referenced include the healing of the blind man at Siloam (17–19, John 9), the healing of a leper (19–20, Mt 8:1–4 || Mk 1:40–45; Lk 5:12–16), and the feeding of the 5,000 (20–21, Mt 14:13–31 || Mk 6:32–34; Lk 9:10–17; Jn 6:1–15). Each of these miracles, as Martinez notes, has been tied to Epiphany in one way or another, and each of them contribute to the increasing expectation of the mention of the baptism of Jesus, the other central event tied to Epiphany. It has been foreshadowed with “bridegroom” language (13) and was explicitly alluded to by listing the changing of water into wine as the first miracle (15–16) in the miracle list.

The transition into the account of Jesus’ baptism is introduced by simply placing Jesus in the water of the Jordan river (22–23), directly referencing to the account of Jesus’ baptism (Mk 1:9–11 || Mt 3:13–17; Lk 3:21–22) and then borrowing phrasing from Jn 1:29, “The lamb of God who takes away the sin of the world!” (lines 23–24). The effect is to identify the “lamb of God” as the subject who went into the water, skilfully placing Jesus as identified in John’s gospel – which does not directly mention John baptizing Jesus (Jn 1:19–34) – as the subject of synoptic gospels’ account of Jesus’ baptism.

The purpose of Jesus’ entering the Jordan river was “to be baptized by the forerunner” (lines 24–25). The “forerunner,” also mentioned in line 34, is a reference to John the Baptist. This language styles John as one who goes before Jesus, calling out attention to him to announce his arrival (cf. Is 40:3–11; Mal 3:1).[7] Jesus here is referred to as “the one born upon earth as a man” (30–31), testifying to the human nature of Jesus and implying at the same time that he is more than human.

After this is perhaps the most normal, human portion of the entire liturgy. Before the baptism of Jesus happens, John and Jesus have a brief conversation. The words “Let us complete the plans of the Father” are put in the mouth of Jesus, with an immediate response from John of “Like the Lord wanted” (34–37). The moment reads almost as a whispered conversation between the two primary participants immediately prior to the actual act of baptism. In the context of the liturgy, the conversation also confirms that John the Baptist and Jesus knew exactly what they were doing and knew the impact of the baptism. Unlike the canonical accounts of Jesus’ baptism which record John’s protestations about not being worthy (Mt 3:14–15), this account paints John as in tune with the will of God and willing to perform the baptism without hesitation.

This account of Jesus’ baptism is framed in a liturgy as a group recollection of the baptism event. The response of the group to the baptism is testimony of the earth and the animals upon it rejoicing as Jesus descends into the water. The rejoicing is affirmed as Jesus rises out of the water again with a repetition and expansion of lines 27–28 as audible testimony from the Father: “This is my beloved son in whom I am well pleased. Fear him” (cf. Mk 1:11 || Mt 3:17; Lk 3:22).

Bibliography

Cross, F. L., and E. A. Livingstone, eds. The Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church. 3rd Revised. New York: Oxford University Press, 2005.

Friedman, David Noel, ed. The Anchor Yale Bible Dictionary. 6 vols. New York: Bantam Doubleday Dell Publishing Group, Inc., 1992.

Martinez, David G. “Epiphany Themes in Christian Liturgies on Papyrus.” Pages 187–215 in Light from the East. Papyrologische Kommentare Zum Neuen Testament. Edited by Peter Artz-Grabner and Christina Kreinecker. Vol. 39 of Philippika. Harrassowitz Verlag, 2010.

Treu, Kurt. “Neue Berliner Liturgische Papyri.” AfP 21 (1971): 57–82.


[1] Kurt Treu, “Neue Berliner Liturgische Papyri,” AfP 21 (1971): 62–67.

[2] David G. Martinez, “Epiphany Themes in Christian Liturgies on Papyrus,” in Light from the East. Papyrologische Kommentare Zum Neuen Testament, ed. Peter Artz-Grabner and Christina Kreinecker, vol. 39 of Philippika (Harrassowitz Verlag, 2010), 198–199.

[3] F. L. Cross and E. A. Livingstone, eds., The Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church, 3rd Revised. (New York: Oxford University Press, 2005), 557.

[4] Martinez, “Epiphany Themes in Christian Liturgies on Papyrus,” 198.

[5] Treu, “Neue Berliner Liturgische Papyri,” 64–65.

[6] Martinez, “Epiphany Themes in Christian Liturgies on Papyrus,” 198–99.

[7] David Noel Friedman, ed., The Anchor Yale Bible Dictionary, 6 vols. (New York: Bantam Doubleday Dell Publishing Group, Inc., 1992), 2:830.

P.Berol. 16595: Epiphany, Miriam, and her Tambourine

This is one of a short series of posts about Epiphany themes in early Christian papyri.

P.Berol. 16595 (Transcription) is a small fragment with writing extant on recto and verso. The recto portion mentions the baptism of Jesus and is the portion directly involved with Epiphany. The verso, however, mentions the Song of Miram from Exodus. Is it related to the recto?

P. 16595: Theophanie-Hymnus mit musikalischen Vokalverdoppelungen

P.Berol. 16595 recto (source)


P.Berol 16595

Description

P.Berol. 16595 (tm 64842) is a small papyrus fragment (5.8 x 9.5 cm) hailing from Egypt, dated to the 5th–6th centuries (ad 400–599). Writing is visible on the recto and verso sides of the papyrus. It is described by Treu as a “Theophany hymn with musical vocal doublings.”[1] The content of the papyrus, like that of P.Berol. 11633, is related to the celebration of Epiphany.[2]

The vocal doublings present in the papyrus are unnecessarily repeated vowels within words. They indicate an intended rhythmic or musical quality to the text. Martinez provides more information regarding the doubling in this papyrus:

We can, however, be sure that these passages were sung or chanted, because both sides [recto and verso] display doubling or quasi-doubling of vowels, a usage we know from other papyri and manuscripts that preserve musical scores. The doubled vowels indicate for the singer (possibly in this case the cantor, or psaltes) places where two notes are to be sung in a syllable (melism). This feature lends to the document considerable musicological importance.[3]

Martinez further notes that “Some Christian scribes, however, adopted this practice in writing hymns and liturgies.”[4] This papyrus reflects a text that was not simply read, but was chanted or sung.

Contents

The recto reflects material from John’s gospel regarding John the Baptist’s testimony of Jesus’ baptism, one of the events strongly associated with the feast of Epiphany. It records the words of John the Baptist from John 1:15 (repeated in John 1:30) in testimony of Jesus, that Jesus comes after John but is more important than John. It is a reminder of John’s function as forerunner,[5] pointing toward Jesus.

The verso, however, is different. It does not reflect material from the New Testament but instead refers to the “Song of Miriam” from Ex 15:20–21. It reproduces at least part of the song (Ex 15:21, also Ex 15:1) and extends it mentioning “singing … of the heavenly powers.”

Translation

Recto

(1) … of the Jordan has come near (2) John testified and cried (3) out, “This one was he, about whom I said to you, ‘The one (4) who comes after me he is ahead of me (5) because before me if’” (6) … (7) … baptism (8) …

Verso

(9) O, Miriam[6] … they (10) received the tambourine … (11) she said, “Let us sing to the Lord, (12) for he is supremely glorified until even … (13) of being deluged (14) … singing (15) … of the heavenly powers (16) …”

Discussion

The recto begins mid-sentence with reference to the Jordan river, John the Baptist, and at least an allusion to Jesus’ baptism. This firmly sets the context of the papyrus as Epiphany, a feast originally associated with this event. The words ascribed to John the Baptist reproduce the text of John 1:15 and 1:30, albeit not exactly. They do, however, confirm the relationship of the papyrus with the gospel of John. While there is no way to know how large this song was or if the papyrus represents a large or small portion of it, the context of Epiphany and the use of material from John’s gospel is certain.

What else is certain is that the orthography (doubling of vowels) reflects material that was chanted or sung. Unfortunately portions of the papyrus are reconstructed (based on relationship with John 1:15 and Ex 15:20–21) and there is no information available of how the vowel doubling would be represented in the reconstructed portions. This means no complete information on the rhythm or musicality of this hymn is available.

What is available, however, is the unique focus of the verso on the “Song of Miriam.” Miriam, Moses’ sister, is a lesser-known character in the modern western church so the appearance of this material in the context of Epiphany and Jesus’ baptism may at first be confusing. But it need not be. Here is the “Song of Miriam,” from Ex 15:20–21 (lxx):

Then Miriam the prophetess, the sister of Aaron, took up her tambourine in her hand, and all the women went out behind her with tambourines and dancing. Then Miriam led them, saying, “Let us sing to the Lord, for he is gloriously glorified; horse and rider he has cast into the sea.”

The “Song of Miriam,” (Ex 15:20–22) follows the “Song of Moses” in Ex 15:1–19, which follows the people of Israel’s passing through the Red Sea. Notably, Miriam’s song repeats the beginning of Moses’ song (Ex 15:1) signaling that Ex 15:1–21 form an inclusio. The Song of Moses is also found in the Odes as Ode 1. The Odes are a collection of material transmitted with the Greek Old Testament that includes messianic-themed material from the lxx and nativity material from the Greek New Testament. Even today, the Odes are typically used in liturgical contexts in Eastern Orthodox churches.[7] They are transmitted as a group with the Psalms in several Psalter manuscripts. They are also found in whole-Bible manuscripts such as codex Alexandrinus. At least one Psalter manuscript, codex Vernonensis, includes Ex 15:1–21 as the first Ode.[8] Why does this matter? It matters because it confirms that at least some Christian communities used the inclusio formed by Ex 15:1–21, the Song of Moses and the Song of Miriam, in the context of worship.

But why this reference to the Israelites’ passing through the Red Sea here in the context of baptism? Paul, in 1Co 10:1–4, makes the association.

For I do not want you to be ignorant, brothers, that our fathers were all under the cloud and all went through the sea, and all were baptized into Moses in the cloud and in the sea, and all ate the same spiritual food, and all drank the same spiritual drink. For they drank from the spiritual rock that followed them, and the rock was Christ. (1Co 10:1–4)

Martinez summarizes the association between this event and baptism:

Theologically and liturgically, the miraculous defeat of Pharoah and the Israelites’ passage through the Red Sea is a type of Christian baptism … This passage [1Co 10:1–2] is used in the liturgy for the blessing of the baptismal waters in the Greek Orthodox rite on Epiphany eve.[9]

The parting and passing through of the Red Sea (Ex 14) prefigure Christian baptism (1Co 10:1–2). The celebration of the event referred to in this scant scrap of papyrus recalls one sign of the commencement of the earthly ministry of Jesus Christ (Jn 1:15, 30), his baptism. The picture of Miriam, leading the women with tambourine and dancing, singing about how the Lord “cast horse and rider into the sea” are a picture of the waters of baptism, sanctified by Christ, used to overtake those who pursue God’s people.[10]

Bibliography

Martinez, David G. “Epiphany Themes in Christian Liturgies on Papyrus.” Pages 187–215 in Light from the East. Papyrologische Kommentare Zum Neuen Testament. Edited by Peter Artz-Grabner and Christina Kreinecker. Vol. 39 of Philippika. Harrassowitz Verlag, 2010.

Swete, Henry Barclay. An Introduction to the Old Testament in Greek. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1914.

Treu, Kurt. “Varia Christiana.” AfP 24–25 (1976): 113–126.


[1] Kurt Treu, “Varia Christiana,” AfP 24–25 (1976): 121–23.

[2] See discussion on P.Berol. 11633 elsewhere in this volume.

[3] David G. Martinez, “Epiphany Themes in Christian Liturgies on Papyrus,” in Light from the East. Papyrologische Kommentare Zum Neuen Testament, ed. Peter Artz-Grabner and Christina Kreinecker, vol. 39 of Philippika (Harrassowitz Verlag, 2010), 194–95.

[4] Martinez, “Epiphany Themes in Christian Liturgies on Papyrus,” 195.

[5] See discussion regarding “forerunner” on P.Berol. 11633.

[6] Possibly “Mary”

[7] Martinez, “Epiphany Themes in Christian Liturgies on Papyrus,” 195.

[8] Henry Barclay Swete, An Introduction to the Old Testament in Greek (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1914), 253; Treu, “Varia Christiana,” 122.

[9] Martinez, “Epiphany Themes in Christian Liturgies on Papyrus,” 195.

[10] Martinez, “Epiphany Themes in Christian Liturgies on Papyrus,” 196.

P.Vindob. G. 19931: Epiphany and the Humanity of Jesus

This is one of a short series of posts about Epiphany themes in early Christian papyri.

P.Vindob. G. 19931 (transcription) is a short papyrus that focuses on the blood (thus the humanity) of Jesus. I’ve written about it before in the context of Easter. The portion relevant to Epiphany is line 4, which speaks of the baptism of Jesus by John “the forerunner.” Jesus’ baptism is one of the events that marks the beginning of his public ministry, his “revealing,” and is one of the events that Epiphany (celebrated on January 6) marks.

P-Vindob-G-19931

P.Vindob. G 19931; image from the ONB.


P.Vindob. G 19931

Description

P.Vindob. 19931 (tm 64787), dated to the 5th century (ad 400–499), is an adoration of the blood of Christ.[1] The papyrus (15 cm wide and 6 cm tall) exhibits fold marks that imply it may have been an amulet. The papyrus itself contains a few different metacharacters, including a dagger-like symbol indicating a new line in the hymn as well as a symbol that likely indicates a correction. This short papyrus uses nomina sacra to represent the name of Jesus Christ in every instance (lines 3, 4, 6, 8, 10) but has no other examples.

The first line of the papyrus, a phrase written supralinearly, is noted with a symbol preceding. The symbol represented in the below translation by an asterisk-like mark (※). The same symbol occurs in the first actual line of the hymn, probably marking a correction to the first line. The text of the supralinear line, “because of us,” should be inserted in the first line of the hymn where the symbol occurs.

Contents

As is evident, this papyrus focuses on the blood of Jesus Christ. There are five lines to the hymn, each associating some quality of Jesus with the salvific power of his blood to create an image of the divine human, Jesus Christ. The first two lines[2] focus on Jesus Christ’s physical nature, testifying that he was made into flesh “from the holy virgin” (Lk 1:34–35) The second line reinforces this point by explicitly tying Jesus Christ to Mary, the mother of God (Lk 1:41–43). The third line is the most incomplete due to holes in the papyrus, likely the result of it being folded, and is impossible to fully reconstruct. The fourth line recalls the event of Jesus’ baptism by John the Baptist (Mk 1:9–11 || Mt 3:13–17; Lk 3:21–22). The fifth line calls to mind the death of this fully-human Jesus and the benefit it brings for humanity (Heb 10:11–14).

Translation

                                                             ※ because of us

† Blood of the one made into flesh ※ from the holy virgin, Jesus Christ.

† Blood of the one who was born from the holy mother of God, Jesus Christ.

† Blood of the … being made to appear … Jesus Christ.

† Blood of the one who was baptized in the Jordan by John the forerunner, Jesus Christ, amen.

† Blood of the one who brought himself as a sacrifice for our sins, Jesus Christ, amen.

Discussion

Docetism is the ancient heretical teaching that Jesus Christ had a single divine nature and only appeared to be human. That is, he was fully God but projected human qualities and appearances while not being fully human. This hymn focused on the blood of Jesus Christ may be a response to Docetism, intended to reinforce the human nature of Jesus.

The first line links the blood and flesh of Jesus Christ to the “holy virgin,” a reference to Mary. This reference implicitly supports not only Jesus Christ’s birth from a virgin (Lk 1:26–28, 34), but also ties the humanity of Jesus to the sexually pure humanity of his mother, Mary. This human tie to Mary is explicitly made in line two with reference to “the holy mother of God” using the technical term theotokos, the “God-bearer” (cf. Ode 11 title).[3] To the writer of this hymn, and to those who sing it and who preserve it, Mary is an important component in understanding the human and divine natures of Jesus Christ.

Not much can be said about line three, there is just enough text missing to make reconstruction difficult.

The fourth line, however, clearly has to do with the baptism of Jesus Christ. It provides all the necessary details to reference Jesus’ baptism (Mk 1:9–11 || Mt 3:13–17; Lk 3:21–22) and even refers to John as “the forerunner.” [4] There are a few recognized milestones in Jesus’ life, and his baptism, which some traditions identify as the start of his public ministry, is one of them.

The fifth line transforms the context of speaking of Jesus’ blood as a marker of his humanity to a marker of his deity. This blood from this, according to the hymn, demonstrably human man, has the power to serve as a sacrifice for the sins of humanity. Jesus Christ is testified to as the sacrifice. His blood was spilled as a result of the sacrifice. And the sacrifice is what provides hope of salvation to all humanity.

Bibliography

Cross, F. L., and E. A. Livingstone, eds. The Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church. 3rd Revised. New York: Oxford University Press, 2005.

Wessely, C. “5. Adoracion du sang de Jésus-Christ.” Page 435 in Les plus anciens monuments du Cristianisme écrits sur papyrus: Textes édites, traduits et annotés. Patrologia Orientalis 18.3. Paris: Firmin-Didot, 1924.

 

[1] C. Wessely, “5. Adoracion du sang de Jésus-Christ,” in Les plus anciens monuments du Cristianisme écrits sur papyrus: Textes édites, traduits et annotés, Patrologia Orientalis 18.3 (Paris: Firmin-Didot, 1924), 435.

[2] For simplicity, numbered lines refer to the lines of the translation that commence with a dagger (†), not the actual line numbers of the papyrus.

[3] F. L. Cross and E. A. Livingstone, eds., The Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church, 3rd Revised. (New York: Oxford University Press, 2005), 1619.

[4] For some traditions the baptism of Jesus is the key event associated with Epiphany, the public revealing of Jesus and his ministry. See discussion on P.Berol. 11633, a papyrus celebrating Epiphany, which also refers to John as “forerunner.” See also discussion on P.Berol. 16595.

Themes of Epiphany in Early Fragmentary Christian Papyri

P. 11633: Theophanie-Hymne

P.Berol. 11633, recto. online.

Epiphany, a feast of the church originally associated with Jesus’ baptism, is traditionally celebrated January 6. The feast celebrates the manifestation of Jesus in his public ministry, the revelation of Christ to the world — through his nativity, his baptism by John, and his first miracle at the wedding in Cana.

As with many early Christian celebrations, the beginnings of this feast are cloudy and mixed depending on if you trace its history through the Eastern or Western church. The Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church (ODCC, p. 557) tie the origins of the feast with celebration of the nativity and baptism of Jesus, while the western church celebrations centered more on the miracle at Cana. Epiphany was a big deal, celebrated as one of the three principal feasts of the Christian year, along with Easter and Pentecost.

Themes of Epiphany appear in papyri. One of the better articles on papyrus interactions with epiphany themes is:

Martinez, David G. “Epiphany Themes in Christian Liturgies on Papyrus.” Pages 187–215 in Light from the East. Papyrologische Kommentare Zum Neuen Testament. Edited by Peter Artz-Grabner and Christina Kreinecker. Vol. 39 of Philippika. Harrassowitz Verlag, 2010.

Particularly in liturgical or hymnic contexts, mentions in the papyri of one or more of the three primary Epiphany events — Jesus’ nativity,  baptism by John, and miracle at Cana — brings the larger themes of Epiphany into the immediate context.

Of the papyri I’ve researched and translated for the Stuff Early Christians Read project, there are three that mention themes of Epiphany:

Over the next few days I plan on sharing some drafts I’ve written with brief examinations of these papyri. These drafts are not focused on examination of papyrological features, but instead focused on content and interaction with the Greek New Testament, Septuagint, and other literature.

A Crisis of Praxis

I need to start this post by stating that I am a believer in Jesus. I think the Apostles Creed provides an accurate summary of the major, non-negotiable tenets of the faith. I think “Unity in essentials, Liberty in non-essentials, Charity in all things” provides a great framework for how believers should interact with each other.

 

I also need to say that I’m fed up, and I’m having what I think I can call a “crisis of praxis.”

I need to be clear and further state that I’m talking about myself. I may identify areas that I see as issues in society and the church-at-large, but largely what I’m frustrated with is how out-of-sync my theology has become with my praxis. In other words, how what I think about Christianity has become out-of-sync with how I actually live.

I theologically understand the incarnation, crucifixion, and resurrection of Jesus. But these days, it’s as if those things have no direct, tangible, daily effect on my life.

I’m not talking about legalism or rule-following. I’m not talking about a pastor exhorting a particular action as the “application” of a passage in a sermon.

The way I was taught and the way I continue to think about praxis is that it is the logical outflow of the faith we have in Jesus. There should be a result of that faith that is natural, visible, and un-forced. And it should be distinguishing.

But I just don’t see it. I don’t see evidence of theology and belief practiced in my own life or in large as a result of the presence of the church, be it local or global.

The past six or seven years have worn me down. I have had (rightly, I’d argue) pretty much my sole focus on my little family of 5 and the insane challenges (no, really) that our life situation has brought us.

And I don’t have anything left. As the vulgar yet popular saying goes, “I’ve got zero f*cks left to give.” In this world where my immediate life situation demands and takes pretty much everything, what happens outside of my life situation sucks my hope away.

I’m grieved by my own action and inaction, but too weary and spent to do anything about it. How should I respond to that homeless woman who, in the summer and fall, essentially lives outside of the office where I work? Smiling and nodding isn’t the right way, but it’s about all I have bandwidth for apart from a muttered prayer as I enter the office each day.

How is it that I can sit through sermons at my church, basically numb to what is being said? This isn’t the pastor’s fault — he’s a good friend of mine, and he won’t be surprised that I’m writing this. But when the thing I look most forward to at church is that I can sit for an hour and zone out and not be interrupted by kids or crisis, how can that be right? This seems like an issue. And, honestly — I really don’t care, and I really don’t want to change it.

And when I look at the wider scope of things, I see the big-C “Church” (well, the protestant flavor) happily wielding power as a political pawn through self-proclaimed church “leaders” who, to me anyway, seem literally hell-bent on pursuing power at the cost of everything. Like Esau, they’ve swapped it all for a bowl of pork-and-beans, and they don’t even know it — or they do know it and they don’t care.

Does this not drive anyone else to despair?

When I look at our elected leaders, I see politicians who in their words acknowledge the King of Kings, but lack in their basic understanding of the Bible and their perverse application of it in their pontificating on the floor of the House of Representatives and the Senate, in their blathering during hearings, and during their interviews while appealing to their base saying whatever they can to retain power. It is sick. It drives me to despair.

I’m not expecting parity between what one thinks to be true and how one’s actions portay that truth. Lord knows that’s impossible. But the disconnect on all levels between what is testified to as true and what actions betray to be true has caused me to experience more dissonance than I’d previously thought possible.

It has worn me down.

And I haven’t even got to the issues of white privilege and patriarchy that dominate both church and society at all levels — local, national, and global — yet seem so insurmountable. I am grieved by these too, and yet I have no energy for a response. All I can muster is, unfortunately, apathy.

Talk about “white privilege,” I’m a living, breathing example.

And that’s the crisis, at least to me. My theology says my faith should provoke more than intellectual assent. But my praxis betrays this. When I look to the local church for help, I sense desire to do something, to be sure, but not a lot of ability or knowledge on how to do anything apart from the same church programs that have always been done. (I don’t know either; this isn’t a criticism, it is a statement of what I see happening.) And when I look to the church at large for help, the only thing I see is self-proclaimed “leaders” using platforms as personal power plays.

And all I can muster is apathy and preservation of my Sunday hour of uninterruption.

This is why I frame this as a “crisis of praxis.” I see the issues and they weigh upon me, but I’m spent.

I have zero f*cks left to give.

Advent, Christmas, Festivus, &c.

It’s December. Christmas is steadily approaching (less than two weeks, y’all!). We’re pretty much smack-dab in the middle of Advent. Gift buying is in full swing, and the stress of it all climbs daily until its zenith later this month.

How’s it going in my family?

Well, in our house this year, Advent is about getting the chocolate out of the “Advent” calendar, and that’s about it. There is nothing overtly spiritual or Christian about it.

And I’m really OK with that. Honestly, that’s about all we have energy for.

Anticipating-Arrival-001Yes, I’m the same guy that wrote an Advent devotional/guide that got published by Lexham Press that scads of people use for devotions over Advent.

I’m here to say that your family doesn’t have to do the same things the same way every year. You don’t.

There aren’t rules here, and there isn’t a right or wrong way to do Christmas and/or Advent with your family.

Festivus-Kramer-001We don’t need to worry about whether or not a coffee cup says “Happy Holidays” or “Merry Christmas.” Heck, you can celebrate Hanukkah, or Kwanzaa, or even Festivus if you want to. It’s OK. Really. Go on with your feats of strength and airing of grievances, if you must.

Or skip the whole thing and take a break and a big, long, nap. Seriously. (This option sounds especially good to me right now.)

Here’s the important thing: Where are you with Jesus? Is he your Savior? Do you know it?

It doesn’t matter if you do the right “Christian” thing, or read the right Bible verses each night, or go to Christmas Eve service, or whatever. You don’t need to have a nativity scene set up in your house to proclaim your holiness. If you want a disco ball instead of a star or angel on the top of your tree, it’s OK.

What matters? What matters is who you think Jesus is, what you think he accomplished, and what role he plays in your life.